For example, if participants rated the attractiveness of 20 stimulus people, you might have to explain that you began by computing the mean attractiveness rating for each participant.
Or if they recalled as many items as they could from study list of 20 words, did you count the number correctly recalled, compute the percentage correctly recalled, or perhaps compute the number correct minus the number incorrect? A third preliminary issue is the reliability of the measures. A final preliminary issue is whether the manipulation was successful.
This is where you would report the results of any manipulation checks. The results section should then tackle the primary research questions, one at a time. Again, there should be a clear organization. One approach would be to answer the most general questions and then proceed to answer more specific ones. Another would be to answer the main question first and then to answer secondary ones. Regardless, Bem  suggests the following basic structure for discussing each new result:.
Notice that only Step 3 necessarily involves numbers.
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- Step 1: Explain your methodological approach.
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The rest of the steps involve presenting the research question and the answer to it in words. In fact, the basic results should be clear even to a reader who skips over the numbers. Discussions usually consist of some combination of the following elements:. The discussion typically begins with a summary of the study that provides a clear answer to the research question. In a short report with a single study, this might require no more than a sentence. In a longer report with multiple studies, it might require a paragraph or even two. The summary is often followed by a discussion of the theoretical implications of the research.
The structure of an APA research paper
Do the results provide support for any existing theories? Although you do not have to provide a definitive explanation or detailed theory for your results, you at least need to outline one or more possible explanations. In applied research—and often in basic research—there is also some discussion of the practical implications of the research. How can the results be used, and by whom, to accomplish some real-world goal?
Perhaps there are problems with its internal or external validity. Perhaps the manipulation was not very effective or the measures not very reliable. Perhaps there is some evidence that participants did not fully understand their task or that they were suspicious of the intent of the researchers. Now is the time to discuss these issues and how they might have affected the results. But do not overdo it. All studies have limitations, and most readers will understand that a different sample or different measures might have produced different results.
Instead, pick two or three limitations that seem like they could have influenced the results, explain how they could have influenced the results, and suggest ways to deal with them. Most discussions end with some suggestions for future research. If the study did not satisfactorily answer the original research question, what will it take to do so? This part of the discussion, however, is not just a list of new questions. It is a discussion of two or three of the most important unresolved issues. This means identifying and clarifying each question, suggesting some alternative answers, and even suggesting ways they could be studied.
Finally, some researchers are quite good at ending their articles with a sweeping or thought-provoking conclusion. However, this kind of ending can be difficult to pull off. It can sound overreaching or just banal and end up detracting from the overall impact of the article. It is often better simply to end when you have made your final point although you should avoid ending on a limitation. All references cited in the text are then listed in the format presented earlier.
APA Basics: The Four Sections of an APA Paper
They are listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author. If two sources have the same first author, they are listed alphabetically by the last name of the second author. If all the authors are the same, then they are listed chronologically by the year of publication. Everything in the reference list is double-spaced both within and between references.
How to Write a Method Section of an APA Paper
Appendices, tables, and figures come after the references. An appendix could be used to present lists of stimulus words, questionnaire items, detailed descriptions of special equipment or unusual statistical analyses, or references to the studies that are included in a meta-analysis. Each appendix begins on a new page. After any appendices come tables and then figures. Tables and figures are both used to present results. Figures can also be used to illustrate theories e.
Each table and figure appears on its own page. A brief explanatory title, with the important words capitalized, appears above each table. Each figure is given a brief explanatory caption, where aside from proper nouns or names only the first word of each sentence is capitalized. More details on preparing APA-style tables and figures are presented later in the book.
Figures The main purpose of these figures is to illustrate the basic organization and formatting of an APA-style empirical research report, although many high-level and low-level style conventions can be seen here too. Skip to content Increase Font Size. This paragraph should include possible sources of error and instances of inconsistent or inconclusive data. Also mention any followup questions which arose as a result of your work, and possible further experiments that could or should be conducted.
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Conclude the discussion section with a short summary that emphasizes the overarching significance of the experiment. Michael Cohen has been a technical writer since His areas of expertise include classical music and nonprofit management, and his work has been featured across a variety of media platforms. The words methodology, procedure and approach are the same. They indicate the approach pursued by the researcher, while conducting research to accomplish the goal through research.
See the way the researcher has shared participants and limits in the methodology section of the example. Utilize this standard of outline in your research papers to polish your paper. Here is a step by step guide that will help you write a research paper according to this format. To enlighten him, focus on the literature review section.
Importance of a Good Discussion
This section offers an extensive analysis of the past research conducted on the paper topics. Always remember! The first goal of the research paper is to explain ideas, goals and theory as clear as water. An in-depth analysis of theoretical framework examples research paper is underlined in the sample below.
Now that you have explored the research paper examples, you can start working on your research project. Hopefully, these examples will help you understand the writing process for a research paper. If you still require help for writing your paper, you can hire a professional writing service. For high quality and affordable help, contact MyPerfectWords. You can buy well-written yet cheap research papers by contacting our expert writers.
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