Its most recent and most important contact with the West came from France and America. The West had a negative impact on Indochina because its influence damaged Southeast Asia's system of government, destroyed and diluted the indigenous culture, caused many people to lose their lives and liberty, and set the course for future economic depressions and poverty.
Under French colonisation, the Indochinese political structure went into shambles Hammer, The puppet governments installed after French colonization were "repressive, totalitarian, and corrupt which meant that age old traditional and cultural monarchies were replaced by despots under French influence.
In little time, each country lost its own unique identity; Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam disappeared off maps and were replaced simply by 'French Indochina' Vietnam War, Only French-speaking or French-educated people were allowed to gain high positions in government, while others were treated as second-class citizens and toiled in the fields. Though she remained independent, she came increasingly under the influence of the United States, particularly the American investors in rubber plantations.
In South Africa, the Dutch had established the Cape Colony, which the British took over in the early nineteenth century. By both these states were ruled by the Boers. The English adventurer, Cecil Rhodes, came to south Africa in , made a fortune in mining diamond and gold of this region and gave his name to an African colony Rhodesia. Northern Rhodesia is now independent and is called Zambia. Southern Rhodesia which became an independent nation in April is Zimbabwe.
They plotted the overthrow of the Boer government of Transvaal which was rich in gold This led to the Boer War in which the Boers were defeated though they continued to remain there. This Union was ruled by the white minority —Boers, Englishmen, and a few settlers from other European countries The South African government later declared itself a republic. Except for the Portuguese possession of a part of Mozambique, East Africa had not been occupied by any European power before In that year a German adventurer, named Karl Peters, came to the coastal region.
Using bribery and threats, he persuaded some rulers to sign agreements placing themselves under German protection Since France and Britain also had plans in this area, an agreement was signed by which France got Madagascar, and East Africa was divided between Germany and England. The ruler of Zanzibar who claimed East Africa as his property got a strip of coast land, kilometres long and 16 kilometres deep The Northern half of this strip was reorganized as a British sphere of influence, and the southern part.
Tanganyika, a German sphere of influence. These were later occupied by England and Germany But the Africans rose in revolt again and again because the Germans had taken land from them without making any payment.
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In exchange Germany was given Heligoland In , Uganda was declared a British protectorate Germany also gave up her claims to Zanzibar and Pemba island, Witu and Nyasaland present Malawi , but made more conquests in the interior. The Portuguese colony of Mozambique was fo be shared out between Germany and England, but the First World War stopped the plan and Germany lost all her colonies. German East Africa was given to England after the war and was renamed Tanganyika.
The German possession of Ruanda-Urundi was given to Belgium. Like Germany, Italy entered the colonial race late. The country of Abyssinia, now known as Ethiopia, was an independent state. Italy wanted to declare Abyssinia its protectorate and invaded her. So the Italians had to withdraw Italy made another attempt to conquer Abyssinia in , before the Second World War Except for a brief period during those years, Ethiopia, except Eritrea, was able to maintain her independence.
Algeria, on the north coast of Africa, was conquered by France in , but it took her about 40 years to suppress the Algerian resistance. Morocco is situated on the north coast of Africa, just south of Gibraltar. Thus it is very important to the western entrance of the Mediterranean Both France and Italy wanted to claim it as their territory The two countries agreed, in , to the French occupation of Morocco and to the Italian occupation of Tripoli and Cyrenaica, to the east of Tunisia In , France and England signed an agreement which gave Morocco to France, and Egypt to England.
After these agreements had been signed, France proceeded with her plans of conquest of Morocco. Germany had been ignored when England, France and Italy were signing agreements to partition North Africa She threatened to oppose the French occupation Spain had been promised Tangier in return for French occupation of Morocco. So it became necessary to appease German ambition in North Africa There were many international crises and it appeared as if war would break out. The people of Morocco were never consulted. Ultimately, France agreed to give Germany , square kilometres of French Congo.
Western Imperialism in East Asia
Spain was further appeased by giving her a small part of Morocco In France established her protectorate over Morocco However, it took the French many years after the First World War to suppress the rebellions there. As you have seen earlier, Italy had assured herself the support of European nations in her claims over Tripoli and Cyrenaica, which were the possessions of the Turkish empire.
Italy then declared war against Turkey and occupied the two provinces, which were given the old Roman name of Libya. Egypt was a province of the Turkish empire when the scramble for colonies began in the nineteenth century. The financial troubles of the Pasha led to increased joint Anglo-French control over Egypt When the Pasha tried to resist, he was forced to abdicate and anew governor was appointed In , there was a revolt against the Anglo-French control and, in suppressing the revolt, the British armies conquered Egypt Restoration of law and order and protection of the Suez Canal were the reasons given for the military intervention in Egypt.
England announced that she would withdraw her troops as soon as order was restored After the revolt was suppressed, Egypt came under British control. The Egyptians never reconciled themselves to the British conquest. After the war was over, leaders of Egypt started for the Paris Peace Conference to plead the case of Egypt, but they were arrested. In , though she still retained her rights over the Suez and many other concessions, Britain was forced to recognize Egypt as an independent sovereign state. Sudan, or what was earlier known as Egyptian Sudan, was jointly exploited by Egypt and Britain.
A Sudanese leader who had proclaimed himself the Mandi had succeeded in overthrowing Egyptian and British control over Sudan. His army had defeated Egyptian and British troops In , British and Egyptian troops succeeded in recapturing Sudan after a long and bloody war in which 20, Sudanese troops, including the successor of the Mandi, were killed. Sudan came under British rule. The French at this time tried to occupy southernparts of Sudan but were forced to withdraw by the British France, however, was given a free hand to extend her control over wha t was known as western Sudan and the Sahara France occupied these areas after a long war of conquest.
With these gains, France was able to connect her equatorial conquests with her west and north African conquests. You have already read about the colonization of the Americas by Spain, Portugal, Britain, France and other European countries, and the emergence of the United States of America as an independent nation. The freedom movements in some of the countries of South America and the Caribbean have also been briefly mentioned.
By s, almost all countries of the Americas had gained their independence from Spain and Portugal. Only a few colonies ruled by European countries were left in this part of the world.
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The United states in the nineteenth century emerged as the biggest power in the Americas. She had extended her territories through war with Mexico and purchase of Louisiana Florida and Alaska from France, Spain and Russia, respectively. Within a short period after the Civil War which ended in the abolition of slavery, the United States emerged as a major industrial and military power in the world. By , her naval strength was third in the world The forces that had led to the emergence of imperialism in Europe and later in Japan also led to the emergence of the United States as a major imperialist power by the later half of the nineteenth century.
You have already read about the treaty which the United States signed with China in on the lines which some European countries had forced on China after the Opium War. After the U S.
When the scramble for colonies began, the leaders of USA declared that she must not fall out of the line of march. There was a territorial dispute between British Guiana now Guyana and Nicaragua, and the British threatened to send troops against Nicaragua. A new corollary was added to the Monroe Doctrine in by the then U. President, Theodore Roosevelt Britain and Germany had imposed a naval blockade of Venezuela as she had failed to repay the loan which she had taken from them.
Theodore Roosevelt forced Britain and Germany to lift the blockade and declared that the United States alone had the right to intervene in the affairs of her neighbouring countries if they were unable to maintain order on their own. The United States took control of the finances of the Dominican Republic which she retained for three decades and occupied that country in for eight years. In , American troops were sent to Nicaragua in support of a revolt which had been inspired by an American mining company.
The United States secured from the government which had been installed there the ugh t to intervene in that country to protect American interests In , American troops Were sent to Haiti and remained there till In Mexico, where the United States had huge investments, Fransisco Madero , a popular leader was deposed with the support of the United States The intervention by the United States in Mexico continued for many years.
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The economic and political domination of South America was facilitated by the absence of strong governments in the countries of South America. Many of these countries were ruled by caudillos, or crude and corrupt military leaders with armed gangs. They floated loans for ready cash and sold concessions to foreign companies to exploit the natural resources of their countries. They served as markets for manufactures, and sources of raw materials for industrialized countries, particularly the United States, as well as avenues for investment of capital from these countries. Most of the countries of South America, though political independent, came under the economic and political control of the United States.
One of the major acquisitions by the United States in this period was the Panama Canal. The canal which would link the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans was of great economic interest In , the United States decided to undertake the canal project alone. In , the United States financed and organized a revolt in Panama and landed her troops there. Soon after, the United States recognized Panama as an independent state The government of Panama signed a new agreement with the United States according to which the amount of compensation remained the same but instead of the six mile wide canal zone, ten mile canal zone was granted to the United States.
The canal was opened in and the canal zone has remained under the occupation of the United States since then. In , the American residents in the Hawaii islands revolted against the queen of Hawaii and, asked for the annexation of the islands by the United States. By , Hawaii had been annexed by the United States. Later, it became one of the states of the United States. The United States also extended control over other islands in Pacific. There was rivalry among the US Britain and Germany over these lands. By , almost all parts of the non-industrialized world had come under or indirect control of a few industrialized countries.
Most countries of Africa had Lost their political freedom and were ruled by one or other country. The economies of all countries as well as of those which were politically independent were control imperialist countries to serve rests. All parts of the world were brought together under a world economic control which was based on the exploit colonies.
U.S. Imperialism in the Asia-Pacific - Focus on the Global South
Since , most Asia can colonies have become free and independent. You will read about it later. But the effects of imperialism in the life of the people in these country are still evident. The most important and lasting consequence of imperialism and colonization was the economic backwardness of the colonies as well as of those countries indirectly controlled by the countries Imperialism led to destruction of local industries. For example, India for centuries an exporter of textiles. The natural resources of the colonies came under the control of the imperialist countries and were exploited for their own benefit.
The industrialization of these countries was prevented. Where industries were started, these were subordinated to the interests of the industries of the imperialist countries or for making profits for the companies of the imperialist countries. The modern industries in the colonies had little impact on the life of the people there. The patterns of agriculture in the colonies were also changed to meet the requirements of the industries of the imperialist countries.
In some countries, the entire agriculture was reduced to the growing of one or two crops For example, Cuba was reduced to the position of a sugar producing country and little else. There was also naked plunder of natural resources, and exploitation through high demands of revenues and taxes.
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